Safety technology of the hottest hoisting machiner

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Safety technology of hoisting machinery

1) safety management measures of hoisting machinery

(1) safety management system. The items of safety management rules and regulations include: driver's code and safety operation specification of lifting machinery; Hoisting machinery maintenance, maintenance, inspection and inspection system; Management system of safety technical archives of hoisting machinery; Safety training and assessment system for lifting machinery operation and maintenance personnel; The unit using the lifting machinery shall apply to the local competent department for the safety technical inspection of the lifting machinery in use and the management of the replacement of the lifting machinery permit on schedule

(2) technical archives. The items of safety technical archives of hoisting machinery include: technical documents of equipment delivery; Installation, repair records and acceptance data; Use, maintenance, maintenance, inspection and test records; Safety technical supervision and inspection report; Equipment and personal accident records; Equipment problem analysis and parity record

(3) regular inspection system. The period of regular safety supervision and inspection of hoisting machinery in use is 2 years (the period of regular safety supervision and inspection of elevators and manned elevators is 1 year)

in addition, the use of units representing the nominal tensile strength and yield ratio of bolt materials should also be used for crane self-examination, daily inspection, monthly inspection and annual inspection

① annual inspection. Conduct a comprehensive inspection of all hoisting machinery in use at least once a year. Cranes that have been out of service for more than 1 year, have experienced an earthquake of magnitude 4 or above, have major equipment accidents, and have been exposed to wind forces of magnitude 9 or above should be comprehensively inspected before use

among them, the load test can be carried out by lifting heavy objects equivalent to the rated lifting capacity, and carrying out lifting, operation, rotation, luffing and other operations at the rated speed. Check the safety and technical performance of the normal working mechanism of the crane, the deformation, crack, corrosion of the metal structure, and the connection of welds, rivets, bolts and so on

② monthly inspection. The inspection items include: whether there are abnormalities, reliability and accuracy of safety devices, brakes, clutches, etc; The state of important parts (such as slings, wire rope pulley blocks, brakes, slings and accessories, etc.), whether they are damaged, whether they should be scrapped, etc; Leakage and working performance of electrical and hydraulic systems and their components; Power system and controller, etc

the lifting mechanism that has been out of service for more than one month should also be checked before use

③ daily inspection. Before daily operation, check all kinds of safety devices, brakes, control devices and emergency alarm devices; Safety condition of track; Safety condition of steel wire rope. When abnormal conditions are found in the inspection, they must be handled in time. It is strictly forbidden to operate with diseases

(4) training and education of operators. Lifting operation is a collective operation coordinated by commanders, crane drivers and riggers. It is required that lifting operators not only have basic cultural and physical conditions, but also understand relevant regulations and standards, learn the theory and knowledge of lifting operation safety technology, and master the skills of practical operation and safety rescue. The crane driver must pass the special examination and obtain the certificate before he can operate independently. Commanders and drivers should also receive professional technical training and safety skill training, understand the dangers and risks of their work, and have the ability to protect themselves and others

2) form of lifting injury accident

(1) heavy object falling. Damage to lifting appliances or lifting containers, loose binding of objects, improper hooks, sudden power loss of electromagnetic suction cups, parts failure of lifting mechanism (especially brake failure, wire rope fracture) will cause heavy objects to fall

(2) crane instability and overturning. There are two types of crane instability: first, due to improper operation (such as overload, jib luffing or rotating too fast), uneven outriggers or foundation settlement, the overturning moment increases, resulting in crane overturning; Second, due to the slope or wind load, the crane slides along the road or track, resulting in derailment and overturning

(3) extrusion. There is a lack of good safety passage on both sides of the crane track or a lack of sufficient safety distance from the building structure, so that the running or rotating metal structure body causes pinch injury to personnel; The wrong operation of the operating mechanism or the failure of the brake cause the car to slip, causing crushing injury, etc

(4) falling from height. Injury caused by falling from a height when personnel are carrying out crane installation, disassembly, inspection, maintenance or operation at a height greater than 2 m from the ground

(5) electric shock. When the crane is working near the transmission line, any component or lifting object of the crane is too close to the high-voltage electrified object, induction electrification or touching the electrified object can cause electric shock injury

(6) other injuries. Other injuries refer to wringing, grinding, stabbing and other injuries caused by the contact between the human body and moving parts; Hydraulic components of hydraulic crane are damaged, resulting in spray injury of high-pressure liquid; Strike damage of flying objects; Loading and unloading high-temperature liquid metal, inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive and other dangerous goods, and injuries caused by falling or broken packaging

3) safety protection for working at heights

the crane has a tall metal structure, the cab is often located at heights, and many equipment are also installed on the high-altitude structure. Therefore, the normal operation of the crane driver, the maintenance and overhaul of high-altitude equipment, and safety inspection all need to work at heights. In order to prevent people from falling from height and prevent objects falling from height from hitting and injuring the people below, all reasonable operation points with a height of not less than 2m on the crane, including supporting facilities entering the operation point, such as high-altitude access platforms, rest platforms, intermediate platforms for steering, and high-altitude operation platforms, should be protected. The structure and size of safety protection shall be determined according to human body parameters; The strength and stiffness requirements shall be considered according to the most unfavorable loads that may be suffered by walkways, platforms, stairs and railings

4) safe operation technology of lifting operation

(1) preparation before lifting. The preparations before lifting include wearing personal protective equipment correctly, including safety helmet, work clothes, work shoes and gloves. Safety belts and tool kits must also be worn for work at heights; Check and clean the operation site, determine the handling route and remove obstacles. Know the weather forecast of the day for outdoor work. The supporting ground of mobile crane shall be padded and leveled to prevent foundation settlement during operation; Carry out safety inspection on the cranes, hoisting tools and accessories used. Do not use scrapped components, leaving no potential safety hazards; Be familiar with the type, quantity, packaging condition and surrounding contact of the lifted objects, calculate the maximum force according to the relevant technical data (such as quality, geometric dimension, precision and deformation requirements), and determine the lifting point position and binding method; Preparation of operation plan: for the hoisting of large and important objects or the hoisting of multiple cranes working together, the commander, crane driver and rigger shall discuss and prepare the operation plan in advance with the participation of relevant personnel, and submit it to the relevant departments for review and approval if necessary. Predict possible accidents, take effective preventive measures, select safe passages, and formulate emergency countermeasures

(2) General operating requirements for crane drivers. Relevant personnel should carefully shift, carefully check the reliability of hook, steel wire rope, brake and safety protection device, and report abnormal conditions in time

before starting up, confirm that the following conditions are in a safe state before starting up: whether all controllers are set to zero; Whether there are irrelevant personnel on the crane and in the operation area, and whether the operators evacuate to the safety area; Whether there are obstacles that have not been cleared within the operating range of the crane; Whether the minimum distance between the crane and other equipment or fixed buildings is more than 0.5 m; Whether the power circuit breaker is locked or has warning signs; Whether the site of mobile crane is leveled and the outriggers are firmly and reliably installed as required

before driving, you must ring the bell or give an alarm; When approaching people during operation, intermittent bell or warning shall be given

during normal operation, the driver shall not carry out the following behaviors: stop with the limit position limiter; Brake by reversing the vehicle; Inspection and maintenance during lifting operation; Adjust the brake of hoisting and luffing mechanism with load, or increase the operating range with load; The suspended objects shall not pass over the head, and no one shall stand under the suspended objects and the jib

operate in strict accordance with the command signal. No matter who sends the emergency stop signal, it must be implemented immediately

when the lifting load is close to or reaches the rated value, or when lifting dangerous devices (liquid metal, harmful substances, inflammables and explosives), carefully check the brake before lifting, and try to lift with a small height and short stroke, and then lift after confirming that there is no problem

the minimum distance between each part of the crane, lifting load and auxiliary appliances and the transmission line should meet the safety requirements

the driver should not operate under the following conditions: the crane structure or parts (such as hook, wire rope, brake, safety protection device, etc.) have defects and damages that affect the safe work; The lifting object is overloaded or may be overloaded. If the lifting object is unclear, buried or frozen in the ground, or squeezed by other objects, it is not allowed to pull and lift askew during operation; The lifting objects are not tied firmly, or the lifting is unstable, and there is no padding between the edges and corners of the heavy objects and the slings; There are people or floating objects on the suspended objects; The operation site is dark, and the site, lifting conditions or command signals cannot be seen clearly

in case of sudden power failure during operation, set all controllers to zero and turn off the main power supply. Before working again, check whether the crane works normally and operate normally after confirming safety

if there are two sets of lifting mechanisms, the main and auxiliary hooks are not allowed to work at the same time (except for the special crane allowed by the design)

when two or more cranes are used to lift the same heavy object, each crane shall not be overloaded. During the lifting process, the steel wire rope should be kept vertical and the operation should be synchronized. During lifting, relevant responsible technicians and safety technicians shall be present for guidance

when the wind force of the rail crane operating in the open air is greater than grade 6, the operation shall be stopped; When the work is finished, the crane should be anchored

(3) requirements for safe operation of riggers. The rigger is mainly engaged in ground work, such as preparing slings, binding hooks, unhooking and unloading, and in most cases also serves as a command task. The work quality of the rigger is greatly related to the safety of the whole handling operation. The operation process requirements are as follows

① prepare slings. The weight and center of gravity of the lifted object should be estimated accurately. If it is a visual estimation, it should be increased by 20% to select the lifting appliance. The lifting appliance must be inspected regularly every time it is hoisted (about 310 working days in normal use). The safety inspection of the lifting appliance must be carried out carefully. If it is an old sling, it should be degraded according to the situation, and it must not be overloaded or used by chance

② bind the lifting objects. Necessary classification, cleaning and inspection shall be carried out for the suspended objects. The suspended objects shall not be squeezed by other objects, and the buried or frozen objects shall be completely excavated. Cut off all connections with surrounding pipes and lines to prevent overloading; Remove the sundries on the surface or cavity of the lifted object, lock or bind the movable parts firmly, and objects of different shapes or sizes shall not be hoisted together without special binding, so as to prevent falling and hurting people; The burr of the binding part of the lifting object shall be polished smooth, and the sharp edges and corners shall be padded to prevent the sling from being damaged after the lifting is difficult; Measures shall be taken to prevent slings from sliding or lifting objects from slipping after lifting for lifting objects with smooth surface; When lifting large and heavy objects, the induction rope should be added, and the length of the induction rope should be

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